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Hawaiian Land Areas

SUBHEAD: Ahupuaa, Moku, Waihona and Life Zones of Hawaii Nei.

By Juan Wilson modified on 14 March 2017 for Island Breath -
(http://www.islandbreath.org/hawaiinei/hawaiinei.html)


Mokupuni O Lanai
Image above: Ka Mokupuni o Lanai showing Moku, Ahupuaa and Life Zones.

Note that this group of maps is a new set that removes the solid color tint that filled each Moku on previous maps.  The new coloration is based on t
he "World Life Zone System" created by L. R. Holdridge with mapping produced by the Tropical Science Center, Geographic Information System Unit in San Jose, Costa Rica in July 2001 by  J. Tosi, V. Watson, R. Bolanos and prepared by V. Jimenez.

Also the maps are now deliniating areas we are calling "waihona" which we beleive are crucial water related resources in the Hawaiian Islands.

We began uploading these files on 30 April 2016 and hope to be finished with the latest versions of all files by August.

To read the introduction to this material see:
(http://islandbreath.blogspot.com/2016/05/introduction-to-hawaiian-land-areas.html)

The older Ahu Moku work can be found here: (http://www.islandbreath.org/mokupuni/mokupuni.html)



Mokupuni O Hawaii


Image above: Detail of Hawaii traditional land divisions. Click to see whole island.

Available Downloads:
GoogleEarth file .KMZ (15 MB) updated 5/1/16
24"x36" Plotfile .PDF (58 MB) updated 5/1/16
Hi Rez Raster PNG (11 MB) upldated 5/1/16
ArcView GIS files .SHP ZIP (1 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
AutoCAD drafting files .DXF ZIP (917 kb)  uploaded  5/1/16

Mokupuni O Maui


Image above: Detail of Maui  traditional land divisions.
Click to see whole island.

Available Downloads:
GoogleEarth file .KMZ (6.6 MB) uploaded 6/15/16
24"x36" Plotfile .PDF (50 MB) uploaded 5/26/16
Hi Rez Raster File .PNG (15 MB) uploaded 7/15/16
ArcView GIS files .SHP ZIP (418 kb) uploaded 7/15/16
AutoCAD drafting files .DXF ZIP (430 kb)  uploaded  7/15/16

Mokupuni O Molokai


Image above: Detail of Molokai  traditional land divisions. Click to see whole island.

Available Downloads:
GoogleEarth file .KMZ (11 MB) uploaded 5/26/16
24"x36" Plotfile .PDF (25 MB) uploaded 5/26/16
Hi Rez Raster File .PNG (7 MB) uploaded 5/26/16
ArcView GIS files .SHP ZIP (367 KB) uploaded 5/26/16
AutoCAD drafting files .DXF ZIP (158 KB)  uploaded  5/26/16

Mokupuni O Lanai


Image above: Detail of Lanai  traditional land divisions. Click to see whole island.

Available Downloads:
GoogleEarth file .KMZ (7 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
24"x36" Plotfile .PDF (30 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
Hi Rez Raster File .PNG (8.3 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
ArcView GIS files .SHP ZIP (123 KB) uploaded 5/1/16
AutoCAD drafting files .DXF ZIP (53 MB)  uploaded  5/1/16

Mokupuni O Kahoolawe


Image above: Detail of Kahoolawe traditional land divisions. Click to see whole island.

Available Downloads:
GoogleEarth file .KMZ (2 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
24"x36" Plotfile .PDF (11 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
Hi Rez Raster File .PNG (3 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
ArcView GIS files .SHP ZIP (200 KB) uploaded 5/1/16
AutoCAD drafting files .DXF ZIP (71 KB)  uploaded  5/1/16
Mokupuni O Oahu


Image above: Detail of Oahu  traditional land divisions. Click to see whole island.

Available Downloads:
GoogleEarth file .KMZ (25 MB) uploaded 3/2/17
24"x36" Plotfile .PDF (42 MB) uploaded 3/14/17
Hi Rez Raster File .PNG (15 MB) uploaded 3/14/17
ArcView GIS files .SHP ZIP (1.6 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
AutoCAD drafting files .DXF ZIP (723 KB)  uploaded  5/1/16

Mokupuni O Kauai


Image above: Detail of Kauai  traditional land divisions. Click to see whole island.

Available Downloads:
GoogleEarth
file .KMZ
(15 MB) uploaded 5/22/16
24"x36" Plotfile .PDF (43 MB) uploaded 5/26/16
Hi Rez Raster File .PNG (14 MB) uploaded 7/15/16
ArcView GIS files SHP .ZIP (319 KB) uploaded 5/6/16
AutoCAD files DXF .ZIP (2.7 MB)  uploaded  7/15/16
Mokupuni O Niihau


Image above: Detail of Niihau  traditional land divisions. Click to see whole island.

Available Downloads:
GoogleEarth file .KMZ (2 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
24"x36" Plotfile .PDF (10 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
Hi Rez Raster File .PNG (3 MB) uploaded 5/1/16
ArcView GIS files .SHP ZIP (76 KB) uploaded 5/1/16
AutoCAD drafting files .DXF ZIP (59 KB)  uploaded  5/1/16


WORK HISTORY
In 2007 Juan Wilson and Jonathan Jay began a process to identify and map the traditional Hawaiian mokus and ahupuaa on Kauai. We found the way water moves over the land and the effects it has creating those places. We participated with the Aha Kiole Committee, then lead by the late Jean Ileialoha Beniamina. It issued a report in December 2008 locating and naming the traditional mokus and ahupuaa on each Hawaiian island through interviews with kapuna.

In 2010 Juan Wilson contracted with the Western Pacific Fishery Council (under NOAA) to map the moku and ahupuaa of the Hawaiian Islands for the Aha Moku Council (now part of the Hawaii DLNR). The names and boundaries of those areas on this map are founded on that effort that was completed in June 2011. Since then we have made what we hope are useful adjustments, corrections, additions and  refinements to the maps through 2015.

These maps are now being revised by Wilson & Jay to include the World Life Zones as well as modifications based on factors such as rainfall, changing use of land, population shifts, cultural change and ecological modelling.

TOPOGRAPHY
Three dimesional geometry is made up of mostly "positive" and "negative"
surfaces. Hills and ridges are positively curved and valleys and depressionsa are negatively curved. Islands are largely made up of ridges athat border valleys with streams that fl;ow to the sea. 


AHUPUAA
In our nomenclature the “ahupuaa” refers to the land that makes a food independent area for at least a group, village or community. These ahupuaa consist of at least one  stream watershed that reaches the ocean. It may incorporate several streams. In a few cases  two separate ahupuaa join in a large stream or river just before entering the ocean. One example is where the ahupuaa of Waimea and Makaweli meet just upstream of where the Waimea River reaches  the sea. An ahupuaa is the specific place a Hawaiian from. Where they are
“kamaaina” - "the fruit of that place".

Essencially, an ahupuaa is a "negative surface" - as it is a depression between to ridges (positiive surfaces) that lean in the direction towards the sea.

MOKU
We use the term “moku” to describe a group of contiguous ahupuaa that make a bio-regional unit on an island. All islands have, for example, a “kona” (leeward) and “koolau” (windward) moku. More than one island has a “puna” district - a place of spring water; and more than one island has a “pali” moku - north or northwestern facing cliffs. These characteristics make the ahupuaa in general hotter, dryer and flatter in the kona moku and cooler, wetter and steeper in the koolau moku.

A moku basically consist of several such "negative" valley surfaces that are joined along common ridge lines.

SADDLES
However, there are places on these islands where two ridges and to valleys interrsectr in surface that is both positively and negatively shaped - like a horse's saddle. The largest example of such a surface in the Hawaiian Islands is the ridge on the Big Island between Mauana Loa and Muana Kea mountains.  The  resulting two massive valley systems are Kohala Moku to the West and Hilo Moku to the East. Connecting them is the Saddle Road that crosses the island.


Another  kind of understanding of these islands that we are just beginning yo realize is appeared on many historic maps but not very consistantly or with much expanation. These areas cross over and span several ahupuaa and more than a part of one moku.  These areas are clearly identified and delineated by survey on the  Big Island (see 1891 Government Survey of Kaohe and Humuula by C. J. Lyons) and Oahu (see area of Waianae in 1881 Hawaiian Government Survey of Oahu by C. J. Lyons). Reference is made to such an area on Maui as well (see Wailuku area of 1885 Hawaiian Government Survey of Maui by W. D. Alexander).

WAIHONA
There is spirital and other kinds of interpretations made of these areas. We see another possibility that relates back to fresh water. This is not related to how it flows down the sides of ridges and into valleys to become streams and rivers that produce life and join the ocean. It is related to where the water comes from to the islands. How the shapes of the peaks catch the clouds and direct the resulting rain and where that rain is stored under the surface of the island. We have named these areas "Waihona".

In the online Hawaiian Dictionary (http://www.wehewehe.org/ "Waihona" translates as "Depository, closet, cabinet, vault, file, receptacle, savings, place for laying up things in safe-keeping".

Unlike the boundaries of of ahupuaa or moku - that follow ridge and shorelines - the waihona boundaries sometimes follow contour lines along a level elevation.  This  is most  clearly  seen  on the  Big  Island where Kahoe-Humuulu waihoina boundary
follows the treeline at 6,000' elevation around Muana Kea before following ridge lines down the ocean on Hamakua coastline. On our current maps we are showing Waihona on the Big Island, Maui and Oahu only. Their boundaries are yellow lines.

Waihona areas names often are related significant ahupuaa within  them.  On Oahu there is a community named Waianae within an ahupuaa named Waianae within a moku named Waianae within a waihona named Waianae. "Waianae" translates "Wai" - water plus "anae" - to withhold for the future use. This may be the essence of Waihona. It is where the fresh water is caught and stored on these islands.

Molokai and Kauai have remnants of such saddle shapes that have collapsed or been greatly eroded. On Molokai this area is called Palaau and extends into fresh water uprisings in the ocean on the southern coast (see the 1897 Hawaiian Government Survey of Molokai by W. D. Alexander) and on Kauai it is called Waimea and includes the Alakai Swamp and the wetlands that once dominated the Mana plain. (see  Kauai  Government  Survey  of  1878  by  W. D.  Alexander).


USE & REPRODUCTION
The resulting work produced files available to the public that include GoogleEarth files, PDF plot files for producing 24"x36" maps, as well as high-resolution bitmap (PNG raster image) files and geographic information system SHP files compatible with Arcview and DXF files used by AutoCAD and CNC systems. On request we will consider supplying Canvas GIS illustration files in CVX format that are the source for much of this work.

After their first report was finished and the maps were completed, the Aha Kiole Advisory Committee became the Aha Moku Council.

Links to those files, by individual islands, are available here (http://www.islandbreath.org/mokupuni/mokupuni.html). The files can be used for non-commercial use by the public.

If you choose to use any of these files or publish them, please give credit to the source "IslandBreath.org 2016". Please do no alter these files without consultation and permission. If commercial use is desired, for example selling printed maps,  contact us for arrangements.

Juan Wilson
juan@islandbreath.org
(808) 335-0733
PO Box 949, Hanapepe, Hawaii, 96716

Jonathan Jay
jjkauai@gmail.com
(808) 212-7686
5956 Lokalani Road, Kapaa, Hawaii 96461




 Note:

This article has been updated with links to high resolution images of S. P. Kalama's 1837 and 1838 maps of  Na Mokupuni O Hawaii Nei (the Hawaiian Islands). These were the only comprehensive maps known, that were created by a Hawaiian, to map the islands before the Great Mahele and the following introduction of private land ownership.

  Map above: Kalama Map of 1837. Click to enlarge to 5821  4067 pixels.

  Map above: Kalama Map of 1838. Click to enlarge to 13236  8698 pixels.

Note this map was printed in four sections. The Moku ares were colored by hand. The upper left quadrant; that included Oahu, Kauai, and Niihau; has only yellow and blue Moku colores and did not include green or red.

Pau




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